First Thoughts

James Chaney

James Earl J.E. Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964), from Meridian, Mississippi, was one of three American Civil Rights workers who were murdered during Freedom Summer by members of the Ku Klux Klan near Philadelphia, Mississippi.

Andrew Goodman Michael Schwerner Ku Klux Klan Medgar Evers Neshoba County Voting Rights Act New York Civil Rights Freedom Summer Martin Luther King Freedom Riders Jim Crow Mississippi Burning African American African Americans

Jewish people were involved in the fight for Civil Rights. Goodman & Schwerner were victims of Mississippi Burning w/ James Chaney. TY MLK!
I was a child when Martin Luther King rose to prominence in the public eye. It was a troubled time, very troubled. There was a lot of hatred going around, resentment, and the deaths of both black and white children to show for it. I recall the Freedom Riders, the deaths of Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney by the KKK; I watched little girls dying in church bombings, riots. It was an ugly time, a scary time for a child who couldn't fully understood why there was so much anger, why people were willing to kill children, willing to kill young college students just signing up black voters in Mississippi. And in that midst of hatred, rose a man with the power to spellbind people to listening. Instead of preaching ‘an eye for an eye’, he offered ‘turn the other cheek’. In the face of violence, he offered peace. Martin Luther King understood the only way to win was to do it honorably. There are those who try to tear down his memory, saying he wasn’t perfect. Well, none of us ...
Had a great day with James Chaney, Thomas Cowden, Casey Cowden, Reuben Lay, and of course the regular group, Jason Long, Matt Webb, & Aaron B. Fox. Also great to meet Jeannie Crumpler or should I say the future Mrs. Fox.
Stumbled on a post about Ronald Reagan's first speech after being nominated in 1980---" It was long after Reagan left office that I heard about Reagan’s infamous speech at the Neshoba County Fair, right outside Philadelphia, Mississippi where three Civil Rights workers—James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner--had been slain in 1964. Reagan used this historic area to send a coded message to Southern racist. Ragan told the crowd that he was in favor of “state rights” and that as president he would "restore to states and local governments the power that belongs to them." Reagan shared the stage with John Bell Williams, a notorious segregationist and then-Representative Trent Lott who applauded Strom Thurmond's 1948 Dixiecrat campaign. Reagan only came to the Neshoba County Fair after Mississippi's Republican national committeeman wrote his campaign to advise that it would be a good place to reach out to "George Wallace-inclined voters.” Reagan’s 1980 campaign manager, Lee Atwater ackn ...
Stand up to bigotry of ‘states’ rights’ BY JESSE JACKSON November 4, 2013 In 1980, after receiving the nomination of his party, Ronald Reagan kicked off his presidential campaign in Philadelphia, Miss., at the Neshoba County Fair. Neshoba County is not someplace you just drop into; you have to want to go there. It’s a small town remembered largely for being the site of the horrid 1964 murders of three young Civil Rights volunteers, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner and James Chaney. Reagan went to Mississippi to give a speech that focused on states’ rights and the dangers of big government. He went to send a message — and it was heard clearly across the South. States are rightly hailed as laboratories of democracy, places that can experiment and try out programs and ideas that, if successful, spread across the country. But from the earliest days of the Republic, states’ rights has always been the doctrine of reaction. It has been invoked to stop national reform and to protect local privilege ...
Let us remember James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Shwerner for their sacrifice for voting rights and Civil Rights.
On this day in 1964, Civil Rights activists James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were murdered as...
Yesterday would have been a greater day had we stopped to reflect on James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman
On August 4, 1964 three Civil Rights workers, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney found dead:
When the roll is called: James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman. RIP.
1964 bodies of 3 lynched freedom fighters (James Chaney, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman) found. FB:
Michael Schwerner:. Andrew Goodman:. James Chaney. are found dead in Mississippi, after disappearing on June 21.
1964: Bodies of 3 civil-rights workers, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman & Michael Schwerner, were found in an earthen dam near Philadelphia, MS
Happy Independence Day ♥ Robert Reich wrote: Patriotism isn't about the superiority of one's country or the dangers lurking inside and outside its borders, about braggadocio and exclusion. True patriotism is about the responsibilities of citizenship, about the ideals that hold us together. It requires mutual sacrifice and inclusion. One of the most patriotic people I ever knew was a young man named Mickey, a friend from my childhood. Mickey loved America so much that he went to Mississippi to register black voters when it was dangerous to do so. On June 21, 1964, Mickey -- his full name was Michael Schwerner -- and two other Civil Rights workers, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman, were tortured and murdered by local members of the Ku Klux Klan, including the county sheriff. The Klansmen held American flags and sang patriotic songs, but they had nothing to do with America. Mickey was and is the America I know. His love for this nation and its ideals is what I celebrate on days like today. Happy Fourth.
Tell that to James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner who gave their lives in 1964 fighting for the VRA.
Please read, then please share. "On June 21st, 1964, three Civil Rights activists were murdered in Philadelphia, Mississippi. The young men - James Chaney, a 21-year old black man from Meridian, MS, Andrew Goodman, a 20-year old white man from New York and Michael Schwerner, a 24-year old white man also from New York - were registering black people to vote." Sheila
Paula Behnken · Top Commenter This seems like a good place to repost this: We're sorry, Medgar Evers, James Reeb, Jimmy Jackson, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, Vernon Dahmer, Herbert Lee, George Lee, Lamar Smith, Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley, Louis Allen, Oneal Moore, Viola Liuzzo. The SCOTUS owes you all an apology for undoing important safeguards to the legislation you died for, directly or indirectly. Some of us will never forget. Note: The names are of those killed because they were associated with people or places where Voting Rights Activities were happening or being planned, before passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. But, there could be many more who deserve to be listed. Reply · 18 · Like · Follow Post · Edited · 9 hours ago
In 1965 I moved to Mississippi. It was a life changing experience. Two months after arriving in Mississippi, the Voting Rights Act was passed. During that summer the KKK was still burning crosses. The killers of Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, and James Chaney were acquitted of state charges of murder. I became very aware of prejudice and discrimination. Today's Supreme Court ruling was an example of judicial cowardice, especially in an age where state legislatures are moving to make the right to vote more difficult. It is a matter of social justice that our citizens have a right to express their views with their votes. Today was not a proud day of American jurisprudence!
Forty nine years ago, white supremacists murdered Mississippi Freedom Summer activists James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman in a brutal terrorist act to forestall the march of Civil Rights and African-American empowerment. To learn more about Mississippi Freedom Summer, check out the Archives' curriculum lesson.
1964: Three Civil Rights activists found dead The bodies of three Civil Rights workers missing for six weeks have been found buried in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi. Agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation found the three young men - two white and one black man - about six miles from the town in a wooded area near where they were last seen on the night of 21 June. They were Michael Schwerner, aged 24, Andrew Goodman, 20, both from New York and James Chaney, 22, from Meridian, Mississippi. All were members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) dedicated to non-violent direct action against racial discrimination. As soon as the men were reported missing, the case was made top priority and codenamed Miburn (Mississippi Burning). FBI agents headed by Major Case Inspector Joseph Sullivan were sent down to Mississippi to investigate the matter. After a tip-off they found the mens' burnt-out car two days after their disappearance. The bodies have been taken to Jackson, Mi ...
We socialized and conditioned to see the overt and egregious acts of racist vitriol, like the ones expressed by Paula Deen, as the primary examples of how racism works. But you could not have the the kinds of racial disparities evidenced in every aspect of American life without it being maintained through the everyday relations by white and Black folks who consciously and unconsciously believe in Black inferiority. Theses ethnic (racial) disparities that index themselves along economics, education, entertainment, labor, law, politics, sex, religion and war could not be sustained in a nation of 300 million by a few rabid racists. These disparities and this system are sustained as the result of cumulative effects of the common acceptance and advance of Black inferiority and white privilege by everyday folk. Cognitive dissonance and sometimes personal experience muddy the picture but history is more diaphanous: There is a reason we remember the murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner o ...
Congratulations to Chokwe Lumumba for winning the primary for mayor of Jackson, Mississippi. I will warn you to please remember what happened to Medgar Evers, Marco McMillian, Emmett Till, Louis Allen, James Craig Anderson, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, George W. Lee, Lamar Smith, Mack Charles Parker, Paul Guihard and Vernon Dahmer.
Three young workers have gone missing today. Help find James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner.
Kris Hocum vs. James Chaney Check out this fight on YouTube:
Fighting Ricky Legere for flawless MMA may 18th
James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner would disagree with Scalia on Voting Rights Act »"
Lebron James was injured during today's shoot around, he will miss the 2013 playoffs
Man indicted & freed in 1964 murders of 3 Civil Rights workers dies. Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, we remember you always
Photo: obitoftheday: Obit of the Day: “One Who Escaped Justice” James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael...
Friends this is in response to another friends post, " James Chaney " on my page about Rand Paul, for Supporting the American people for 12 hours and James said the following.. "James Chaney meth, *** of a drug." 2 hours ago · Charley Meckna response... Yea James Chaney, Meth is a very evil Drug,, It has destroyed, many good lives of children as we killed so many people.. Sadly I have several friends and a family member who has destroyed their lives from this evil trash...Breaking my heart as well their families.. Also a few of my close friends who are Dead and gone Never to touch my life,friends or their children's lives again.. SO to be honest with you, James, Suggesting that Rand Paul is on Meth,, Well Friend. It is NO KIND OF JOKE to me ! YEA, I get it. I am and can be very sarcastic, trust me and I see your sarcastic statement referring to Rand Paul, using Meth to stay on his feet for 12 hours, A Patriot for the people standing against Obama, asking this LYING Trash to answer important questions. J ...
cuz, ya know, Medgar Evers, MLK, James Chaney and 'em got gunned down fighting for their right to bear arms. oh, it's true.
Breast Cancer Awareness
Since lots of folks seem especially patriotic today let's remember James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner among many other brave Americans who sacrificed to make our country better.
Radical History: Civil Rights & the Freedom Summer Murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner
Mrs Chaney's KS3 Stars of the week are Chad Simkiss and Lewis James for working well together
Man why D. Wade got on these Trinidad James slippers doe smh
as they, along with James Chaney, a 21-year-old black Mississippian, went to investigate the burning of a black church?
Giving my thanks and gratitude to all the Civil Rights activists who helped fight for equal rights for people of color. You are my heroes. Thank you Harriet Tubman, Patrice Lumumba, Dr. King, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Mickey Schwerner, Nation of Islam, Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale, Eldridge Cleaver and many more. You will never be forgotten and thank you so much for your great contributions to our freedoms.
Man Jimbo Fisher must be a real *** how you lose your OC to your archrival??? And your top asst would rather go coach at Cincinnati than stay wit you??? Goo / Pat Carter / Terry Anthony / Jamie Dukes / James Chaney / Clyde Allen / T Buck / Fee Bartley / Johnie Church (GAYTORS TOO) If you throw up the U sign now i'll grant yall immunity from from what's bouta happen. It's a limited time offer. I need to see U signs and U tee shirts and hats Dont be ashamed to jump off yall bandwagons
Let's mark Martin Luther King Day with a look at five TV movies that dramatized the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and '60s. (King, of course, has been a character in numerous TV movies, and was played memorably by Paul Winfield in the 1978 miniseries "King.") For Us the Living: The Medgar Evers Story (1983) -- A PBS drama about the murdered Mississippi Civil Rights activist. He was played by Howard Rollins Jr. Irene Cara played his wife, Myrlie. Murder in Mississippi (1990) -- Dramatized the last weeks, disappearance and subsequent murders of three Civil Rights workers in 1964 Mississippi. The movie starred Tom Hulce as Michael Schwerner, Josh Charles as Andrew Goodman and Blair Underwood as James Chaney. Road to Freedom: The Vernon Johns Story (1994) -- James Earl Jones played the title character, who was King's predecessor as pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala., and is regarded as one of the fathers of the U.S. Civil Rights movement. Boycott (2001) -- The story of the 381-day ...
So, as I'm flipping through dad's latest NRA newsletter, I see that NRA President Marion Hammer has started comparing the regulation of assault weapons to segregation. I wonder what Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Fred Hampton, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, Hakim Jamal, and the countless other Civil Rights figures assassinated by gunfire would think of that.
nope all money on Bets please or leave
55 Bar in the village last night great guitar playing by Ganessa James and singing by Grammy nominee Chaney Sims, Blues Orchestra
During Freedom Summer of 1964, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney, and Andrew Good went to investigate a church burning.
Ok so the courthouse scene is Hubert Humphrey in DC. Funeral mourners are mother and brother of James Chaney.
““"Oh gawd I think my ovaries just exploded" lebron james does that to me.” Get out now
“It's not about what you got it's about who you have >>>
I'm just talking about the actual music they played in the movie. I never heard the soundtrack
Everytime I vote I remember Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, the three Civil Rights Workers killed in Mississippi registering American Blacks. I also think about the women Suffragettes. I woke up this morning and my President is still my President. God Bless America!!
This is America, my president is Black and my Lambo is blue! LOL Young * Female * Minority Never underestimate the power of your vote! Thank you Medgar Evers, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, the Freedom Riders, Susan B. Anthony, the Woman's Suffrage and all the many shoulders I stood on to cast my vote today because of the 15th & 19th Amendment. Never forget!
Pictured below are Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, & Michael Schwerner,all murdered on June 21st, 1964 during the Freedom Summer voter registration drive.. The movie ''Mississippi Burning", revolved around Their deaths, & other events that summer as well. If these 3 lost their lives for a simple right to vote, we have no excuse of not making it to the polls. Regardless of who you support, let your voice be heard.
these three young men died for your right to vote. Honor them and vote: James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner
That summer in Mississippi was horrible. Please remember James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner And
.As Jeff Greenfield reminded us today - James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner
Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney were planning to register African Americans to vote in Mississippi
My people, Today is the day that you get to do something that most of the world does not have the opportunity to do. Although we live in a country that constantly boasts about its ideals of equality, it still has not addressed the elephant in the room which represents its history of slavery, bigotry, and discrimination. Today, conduct yourself in a manner that is a reflection if the blood that was shed so that you could exercise this basic fundamental right. Remember the grandfather clause, literacy tests, and the poll tax. Remember the Great Republican Betrayal in the Presidential Election of 1876. Remember 16th St. Baptist Church where 16 year old Denise McNair died along with 3 other little black girls while she taught Sunday school. Remember the Little Rock Nine. Remember Congressman John Lewis and hundreds of others on Bloody Sunday at the Edmund Pettis Bridge in Selma, Alabama. Remember Mickey Schwerner, Andy Goodman, and James Chaney on that fateful night in Mississippi. Remember Emmit Till and a ...
If you have the right to vote, and you have nothing stopping you from voting like, maybe you're on a battlefield that day, there is really no reason you shouldn't exercise that right. If you are thinking of not voting I ask you to consider these three names: Andrew Goodman; Michael Schwerner; James Chaney. Find out who these men are and look at the price they paid for trying to give the right that so many take for granted. Once you do that and you're still making rediculous excuses for not voting, go to the nearest mirror and say to the top of your voice; SHAME ON YOU!!!
Jon Manley overcame some rocky moments to score the season’s first submission, sinking in a deep guillotine choke on James Chaney at 3:25 of a thrilling one round brawl.
While talking to our daughter this weekend, I asked if she knew James Chaney. She replied “no.” He was a civilian right activist from Meridian Ms. who was investigating the burning of a Methodist Church and holding voter registration rallies near Philadelphia, Ms. He and two other white males were killed for their actions. WHY SHOULD SHE VOTE? Many died so that you and I COULD have that right. If we don’t vote we make their death in vain. She agreed to go and vote. Please Vote
They say that time waits for no one/ so there is need to beg watches to stop tick tocking/ because we talking about voting to continue this revolution/ A people will gather around the altars of common sense and speak with one voice and declare that Herbert Lee, James Chaney, and Medgar Evers didn't die for nothing/ So come November 6 I will stand in line and.
For the last 3 fights I hope to see Dom Waters vs James Chaney, Michael Hill vs Matt Secor and lastly Mike Ricci vs John Manley
The Th0ught Pr0voker...Number 1 in all of Canada for 7 months now on the ReverbNation 'other' charts...James Chaney was born in Ottawa Ontario and has found a spiritual calling to create and perform music. James currently resides in London, Ontario, and feels compelled to spread the good news, and t...
For all the people who voted for Pres. Obama in 2008 and who are going to 'punish' him for failing to wave a magic wand making laws without the support or cooperation of Congress. Take a look at this. You may not realize the price paid in blood for your rights, but the price was paid. To sit at home and feel superior is obscene. If they were alive today, Andrew, Michael, and James would certainly be voting and registering others to vote.
When u look back on life, we were some crazy *** ppl! I so wish we could go back! I do love y'all James Chaney Angel WatkinsMiche' Marie
Jones Murphy: (shared Help Me Register to Vote - 50 States's photo.) This is not just for those who do not plan to vote this November, but also the many talented people I know who are so silent while their country collapses around them.
Setting my alarm at 6:30 just to pick up for college
Don't drop the ball on your future...get out the vote...get out AND vote!!
Daughter of Civil Rights martyr, James Chaney, visiting with the Living Legacy Pilgrimage, at the Chaney gravesite in Meridian, MS, sings "If I Could Help So...
Been watching the new season of The Ultimate Fighter since the first episode. Let James Chaney fight already. Good luck man I think ur gonna make it to the end. Support our local fighter from Klamath Falls. Best of luck to ya!
an article my good friend and badass photographer friend Michelle Munoz did.
Off the Chaney: James' take on Nic Herron-Webb - …
That bus driver hit her with anger of James Evans
“that's funny because the lads say that about you :S” lol sorry sulls this is too funny
Today on the LLP we are in Philadelphia of the toughest places in the Civil Rights movement...the area where Goodman, Schwerner and Chaney were murdered and an active place of mayhem and repression. They elected their very first African American mayor several years ago and undertook a community wide reconciliation program that is a model for other communities struggling with race and class issues. It ain't all peachy, of course.. many folks still like it the way it was. But we are here to celebrate with those who are trying to move things forward and find out how they are doing. Last night, we were at James Chaney's grave site with his daughter who is one of the most extraordinary people on the planet. She talked and sang with such honesty and grace. Amazing. And later today, we are at the home of Civil Rights worker Medgar Evers who also was gunned down for his work in the movement. A hard day perhaps in some ways., but every day brings new hope for remembering and reaching out. AND, if I don't ...
What kind of political party looks for ways to keep the poor and black communities from voting, then admiting it will help get their candidate elected. Deceit and lies seem to be that parties method of operation
Y'all know lebron James girl a virgo!! Atleast he has good taste
The Price of Change was paid by several untold heros who were murdered fighting for our Right to Vote, the least we can do is Vote!-Born to do battle, drafted at birth.a.k.a.Warrior Breed!-Michael E Mckinzy Sr-10-10-2012
Too many of our people were killed so we can vote...please register to's your moral obligation...don't let their deaths be in vain.
This is why I Vote the way that I do!!!
Please vote, James Chaney never got the chance.
I met James Chaney's nephew on Sunday. He is traveling all over the country to talk about his family's struglle and the nessicity of voting. What will it take to convcince you!
For young adults wondering how they might make a difference in the church and society in the present age, note that many of the leaders/activists of the American Civil Rights movement were young adults at the height of the movement (e.g. Martin Luther King, Jr. John Lewis, Stokely Carmichael, Andrew Young, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner and James Chaney).
Because of people like MLK, Jr., Medgar Evers, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, Mickey Schwerner & The Freedom Riders, I will always vote
Music Video for Mr. Gray's song. Tells the story of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner
ON THIS DAY N HISTORY (1964): James Chaney of Meridian, MS, Schwerner & Goodwin of NYC were murdered near Philadelphia, MS, 1964 by the KKK (a little over a year after Medgar Evers murder in Jackson, MS). Their bodies were finally discovered on Aug. 4, 1964. This started what is known as, "The Mississippi Burning" case in The U.S. Post Office/Federal Courthouse in downtown Meridian, Mississippi (which is now listed on National Register of Historical Places because of this case).
On this and every Memorial Day, remember the brave young Americans who died fighting for your freedom, Americans with names like James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, and pledge your life and honor to continuing the fight for which they gave all.
John Kennedy, Bobby Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Emmitt Till, Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, The three civil right activist killed in Mississippi: James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, Trayvon Martin, Stephen Biko, The Native Americans, The African Slaves, Soldiers of the Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq Wars: In the name of Allah/God most merciful and most compassionate...I pray that as a country, a nation, and the world that we have not forgotten the past and I pray that we are not condemned to repeat it...ameen!
The funeral of James Chaney's mother brought this Civil Rights warrior back to Mississippi, one fine June day. Peace b…
My friends, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and I just went down to Longdale to visit Mt. Zion Methodist Church, a building that had been fire-bombed by the Ku Klux Klan because it was going to be used as a Freedom School .
Super Bowl Philip Seymour Hoffman Bruno Mars Woody Allen Amanda Knox Seattle Seahawks Harry Potter New Jersey Dylan Farrow Denver Broncos Peyton Manning President Obama Super Bowl 2014 Chris Christie White House Malcolm Smith Premier League Puppy Bowl George W. Bush Richard Sherman Red Hot Chili Peppers Seth Meyers World Cup Hillary Clinton Groundhog Day Maximilian Schell Justin Bieber Ian Mckellen Costa Rica El Salvador Sochi Olympics Jose Mourinho Davis Cup Middle East Captain America Patrick Stewart Taylor Swift Kate Upton Pope Francis West Virginia Hunger Games Andy Murray Winter Olympics Bill Maher Joe Namath Pete Carroll Chinese New Year Daily News George Zimmerman Friday Night Lights Stoke City East Rutherford Toronto Mayor Rob Ford Paul Ryan Environment Agency Costa Concordia David Cameron Wendy Davis Manchester United Madeleine McCann Beats Music President Barack Obama Saturday Night Live New Jersey Gov State John Kerry New Orleans Aziz Ansari Michigan State University Locked Out Boris Johnson Justice Department Paula Radcliffe Lunar New Year Bob Dylan Kanye West West End Top Gear East Coast Stephen Colbert Long Island Band Perry Meredith Kercher Mia Farrow Michigan State Michael Gove Ivory Coast Los Angeles House Republicans Home Page Republican Party Academy Award Scarlett Johansson Long Beach Truman Capote Phillip Seymour Hoffman Pete Seeger Secret Weapon Pied Piper Jimmy Fallon Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi

© 2014

Andrew Goodman Michael Schwerner Ku Klux Klan Medgar Evers Neshoba County Voting Rights Act New York Racial Equality Civil Rights Freedom Summer Martin Luther King Jim Crow Freedom Riders African Americans Mississippi Burning African American