Islamic State & Rashidun Caliphate

An Islamic state is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law. The Rashidun Caliphate (al-khilāfat ar-Rāshidīyah), (c. 632–661) is the collective term comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (Year 10 A.H. 2.7/5

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After Muhammad died, a series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State: Abu Bakr (632-634), Umar ibn al-Khattab (Umar І, 634-644), Uthman ibn Affan, (644-656), and Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661). These leaders are known as the "Rashidun" or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam. They oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests, advancing through Persia, Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa. Umar improved the administration and built cities like Basra and canal and irrigation networks. To be close to the poor, Umar lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the first welfare state Bayt al-mal.[3][4][5] The Bayt al-mal or the welfare state was for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced Child Bene ...
Khālid ibn al-Walīd (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد; 592–642) also known as Sayf Allāh al-Maslūl (the Drawn Sword of God), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and one of the greatest military generals in history. He is noted for his military tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina under Muhammad and the forces of his immediate successors of the Rashidun Caliphate; Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattab.[1] It was under his military leadership that Arabia, for the first time in history, was united under a single political entity, the Caliphate. Commanding the forces of the nascent Islamic State, Khalid was victorious in over a hundred battles, against the forces of the Byzantine-Roman Empire, Sassanid-Persian Empire, and their allies, in addition to other Arab tribes. His strategic achievements include the conquest of Arabia, Persian Mesopotamia and Roman Syria within several years from 632 to 636. He is also remembered for his decisive victories at Yamamah, Ullais, and Firaz, and ...
Were the consecutive successors of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). These four Khulafaa (pl. for Caliph) are called the "Khulafaa-e-Rashidun" or the "Rightly Guided Caliphs." Together, these four Khulafaa ruled the Islamic State for about 29 years. They are called "Rightly Guided"because they ruled the people of that time exactly according to the Holy Quran and the commands of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Quotation Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (radi Allahu anhu) has said: "Those who are desirous of following anyone, should follow the Sahaba who were the best of community, whose hearts were pure, whose wisdom was profound and who did not believe in the exhibition of outer life. They were a people whom Allah had selected His Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and who extended His religion to the world. Therefore, try to imitate their ways and manners, for by Allah, they were rightly guided people." A Hadith on the Status of the Four Khulafa In the book, "Shawaa'id ...
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